Unique Email per Service
Use a unique email per service, like you do for passwords.
You already use a password manager to keep track of all the unique passwords for each of your online accounts. If one of these services gets breached or a malicious developer steals your password you can be sure they don’t hack all your other online accounts. You do, however, use the same email address. Not as important as your passwords but a breach will still expose the email address. It also means all these websites can keep sending you spam now that they have your email. What if we would use a unique email per online service as we do with passwords?
The email standard supports the use of a plus sign in an address:
firstname.lastname@example.org will be delivered to
email@example.com. Gmail and Outlook support this out of the box, other mail services might do too. No setup required, the part after the plus sign can be anything you want. Use this little trick when signing up for an online account and you have instant unique email addresses! Receive spam on your
firstname.lastname@example.org address? Add a rule in your email client to drop emails to that address. Got a random spam mail on
email@example.com? Twitter might have sold your email address or worse, they got breached.
This simple solution has some disadvantages. First, it’s super simple to guess the main address: remove the “+something” part. Bots can see this too, they will be quick to spam the main address. Secondly, not all web applications are created equally and some will refuse the address because they see the plus sign as an invalid character, meaning you would have to use your main address anyway, bummer.
What if we create a real unique address per service, not an alias? Say
firstname.lastname@example.org is the address I used for Twitter and
email@example.com for Facebook and I forward both addresses to
firstname.lastname@example.org? Now, no one can guess my real address based on the ones I created: there is no link between
email@example.com. Problem? It’s extra work each time you sign up for a new service.
Some services do exactly that, take AnonAddy for example, which allows you to create random
firstname.lastname@example.org addresses on the fly. Just make sure you use a custom domain as you don’t want to go update all your accounts if AnonAddy would go bust.
Why not run our own email forwarding service? We can create as many aliases as we want, no snooping on our emails and no 3rd party middleman. It does require we run a web server though. Let’s configure a Postfix email forwarder.
Start a Linux VPS and buy a domain name you like. Say we bought example.com (well, rented, you don’t buy a domain name, you rent and renew it each year). First, update the server and install Postfix.
Which gives you the path to the Postfix config file, probably
/etc/postfix/main.cf. Add the following two lines to the config file and replace example.com with your domain (the part that goes after the @ sign of the email address we are going to create).
The second line tells Postfix where it can find the aliases. Create the
/etc/postfix/virtual file if it doesn’t exist yet and add the first alias. Each line is an alias, it starts with the receiving address and is followed with the address you want to forward to. For example:
Each time we add or remove an alias we have to tell Postfix about it and reload the service.
Set the FQDN as well:
You should run a firewall on your server. I am using ufw:
Note, there is more you should do to harden your server but that’s out-of-scope for this tutorial!
The internet doesn’t know that our new server is ready to receive emails to
email@example.com yet. You can probably configure the DNS in the same place where you bought your domain name. Add an A-record for the mail subdomain pointing to the IP of the server (replace 127.0.01 with the IP-address of your server.
Also, add an MX-record pointing to the mail subdomain.
Point the PTR record to
mail.example.com. This will depend on the company hosting your VPS, with Digital Ocean this is the name of the “droplet”.
Give it a bit of time to propagate and test it. Mails send to
firstname.lastname@example.org should now be forwarded to
At the moment we are receiving and forwarding emails in the clear. If the goal is to improve our privacy we should at least try to encrypt the connection. Luckily we can do this for free thanks to Let’s Encrypt’s TLS certificates. Install certbot and request a new certificate.
Note that this certificate is only valid for a few months, see the certbot documentation on how to set up automatic renewals. Add the following to your Postfix config file:
The last line is optional. Postfix supports the VRFY command which allows anyone to determine if an email account exists, which can help brute force attackers, better disable it. Reload Postfix to enable encrypted email connections.
Adding a new alias still means logging in to the server, adding a line to a file and reloading Postfix. Not exactly quick. A little scripting can go a long way.
Save this as
newmail in the home dir on the server. You can now easily add aliases from your laptop via SSH.
- MXToolBox has an SMTP diagnostics tool to test your setup.
- The Postfix installation is based on the Setup mail forwarding in postfix on Ubuntu or Debian article by Silver Moon.